Category Archives: Jews

Biography of Allah’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ in 29 Nights

Herewith my notes for the Sīrah discussion I intend giving this year after Tarāwīḥ, Allāh willing. If we had all the time in the world we could not do justice to the greatest personality that ever walked the face of the earth. Yet in view of the lack of knowledge on the basics of his life by the general public I am using this platform for this purpose, on the premise that one can only truly love someone if one knows that person. As long as we are ignorant about the life and character of Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ    our love for him cannot be as complete as it could be.

 

سليمان الكندي
Twitter: @sulayman_Kindi

 

 

 

Contents

  1. The World Before Islam.. 3
  2. Lineage. 3
  3. Birth of Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ 3
  4. Childhood. 4
  5. Youth. 4
  6. Marriage. 4
  7. Revelation. 5
  8. Preaching. 5
  9. Opposition & Migration (year 6). 6
  10. The Boycott years (7-9). 7
  11. The Year of Sorrow.. 8
  12. Miʿrāj 8
  13. Oath of ʿAqabah. 9
  14. Hijrah. 10
  15. Hijrah of Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ 10
  16. Description of al-Madīnah, Arrival at Qubāʾ 11
  17. Madīnah. 11
  18. The New Social Structure. 12
  19. Badr. 12
  20. Uḥud (3 Shawwāl 3 Hijrī). 13
  21. Khandaq (Shawwāl 5 Hijrī). 15
  22. Hudaybiyah (Ẓul Qaʿdah 6 Hijrī). 15
  23. Khaybar & Muʿtah. 16
  24. Conquest of Makkah (Friday 21 Ramaḍān 8 Hijrī). 17
  25. Ḥunayn (10 Shawwāl 8 Hijrī). 17
  26. Tabūk (Rajab 9 Hijrī). 18
  27. Arabia Submits. 19
  28. Signs of Impending Departure & Farewell 20
  29. To the Companion Most High. 21
  30. Description in Tirmiẓi, if Allāh wills 30 nights. 22

 

1.     The World Before Islam

  • “A bounty is appreciated when its lost.” To appreciate the light of Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ understand the darkness before and what we would be in today without him.
  • State of the Arabs.
  • Byzantium and Persia, the superpowers of the day.
  • Yemen, under Persia, land of maternal ancestry of Quraysh.
  • Kaʿbah, its origins and origins of idolatry. Do Muslims worship the Kaʿbah?
  • ʾIbrāhīm and ʾIsmāʿīl ʿalayhimas salām.

 

2.     Lineage

  • ʾIbrāhīm and ʾIsmāʿīl ʿalayhimas salām.
  • Jurhum of Yemen.
  • Banū Khuzāʿah. Migrated to Makkah 5 centuries before Islā Quṣṣāy married woman of Khuzāʿah, hence generations later allied with Muslims, ultimately conquest of Makkah. Tafsīr of Sūrah Sajdah – destined matters are set in a thread of motion a thousand years before.
  • Hāshim married woman of Yathrib, where his son, Shaybah = ʿAbdul Muṭṭalib grew up.
  • Zamzam lost and found.
  • Year of the Elephant. Delicacy of Arabic – ʿĀmul Fīl, NOT Sannatul Fīl.
  • Abraha and the Elephants.

 

3.     Birth of Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ

  • Makkah, 570, Exact date not absolutely known.
  • Most narrations of miracles at birth are not authentically proven, except for the light which Aminah saw that extended all the way to Syria.
  • The four “mothers” of Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ  . Abū Lahab frees Thuwaybiyah, as a result his punishment is alleviated in Hell. One moment of love is eternally rewarded, how then if a Muslim is steadfast in Sunnah?
  • Name – almost unique amongst the Arabs.

 

4.     Childhood

  • Never saw his father, ʿAbdullāh died during the pregnancy period.
  • Quraysh sent their children to be raised in the desert – for health reasons and to learn pure Arabic.
  • Banū Saʿd bin Bakr – a tribe which specialised in this kind of child rearing. Spoke the purest of Arabic and Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ later attributed his amazing eloquence to them. Experiencing drought.
  • Ḥalīmah as-Saʿdīyah i.e. of Banū Sʿad, accompanied wet-nurses of her tribe to Makkah. All rejected Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ due to his perceived poverty. Ḥalīmah turned back and accepted custody as a last resort and immediately perceived blessings. Her old goat started producing milk again. Her riding animal became fast.
  • Asked Āminah for an extension at age 2.
  • At age 4 Jibrīl opened his chest and removed black spot from heart. Returned to Āminah.
  • Age 6, Āminah dies at ʾAbwā. Umm ʾAyman takes him back to ʾAbdul Muṭṭalib.
  • Age 8, ʿAbdul Muṭṭalib dies. Entrusted to Abū Ṭālib, the poorest of all the uncles.

 

5.     Youth

  • Teenage years spent as a shepherd.
  • Allāh created circumstances e.g. fainting/ barriers against the customs of the time e.g. parties, working naked.
  • Ḥilful Fuḍūl – oath to protect the oppressed. Al-Āṣ bin Wāʾil refused to pay the Zubaydī merchant from Yemen. Decent men gathered around ʾAbdullāh bin Jadʿān to halt such practice, including Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ . He was happy about this oath even after Islām, i.e. good can be done with non-Muslim cooperation.
  • Learnt trade from Abū Ṭālib in Syria, but the incident of meeting the monk is denied by several scholars.

 

 

6.     Marriage

  • Khadījah bint Khuwaylid, may Allāh be pleased with her, twice-widowed and had considerable wealth. Had children from her first husband. She is called aṭ-Ṭāhirah, the Pure Woman and her descendants are Banū Ṭā
  • Hired Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ   to sell her merchandise in Syria.
  • She was so impressed with his ability, honesty and character that she proposed to him, a poor man, having rejected the proposals of the elite of Makkah.
  • Muḥammad صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ   was 25 and she was 40. He was not worried about her age, he loved her character.
  • She bore all his children except for ʾIbrāhīm son of Mā
  • At age 35 Kaʿbah was destroyed by flood. The various clans argued who would replace the Black Stone. Agreed that whoever entered Masjid first could decide.
  • Honour of even pagans. No Ḥarām funds allowed at the insistence of the worst pagan, Abū Jahl. So Kaʾbah was shortened to its present dimensions when Ḥalāl funds were depleted.

 

7.     Revelation

  • When Muḥammad صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ   approached his 40th year he began to feel an intense spiritual agitation and desire to worship in seclusion.
  • Rocks greeted him and years later he remembered a particular rock. How then if we greet him with love?
  • For 6 months before Ramaḍān he experienced true dreams.
  • Monday during that Ramaḍān, first revelation, Cave of Ḥirāʾ in Mount Nūr.
  • Darkness, Jibrīl’s form was not seen. Squeezed Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ  thrice so hard he thought he was going to die.
  • Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ   was anxious and it was our Mother, Khadījah raḍiyallāhu ʿanhā who comforted him at this critical juncture. She mentions his good character, not his ritual worship, e.g. assist the less fortunate, hospitable to guests, etc
  • No further revelation for a while, people mocked, that his “demon” had abandoned him. In other words ,he was the first person to be tested.
  • Khadījah raḍiyallāhu ʿanhā, took him to her cousin, the Christian monk, Waraqah bin Nawfal, who testified to his truth and that he would be persecuted. He died shortly thereafter and is known to enter Paradise.

 

8.     Preaching

  • Quiet preaching at the outset for three years. Most early coverts were poor, e.g. Bilāl, but also rich, e.g. ʿUthmā
  • Invited his close relations to meals and preached to them, only ʾAlī, who was a child, accepted.
  • First public preaching at Abū Qubays. Abū Lahab threw sand and cursed, “May you be destroyed for the rest of your day.” Sūrah Lahab revealed in response.
  • Continuous preaching at all public venues – Kaʿbah, markets etc.
  • Quraysh attempt to stop Muḥammad صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ   through Abū Ṭālib, offering him wealth, kingship and women. Rasūlullāh صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ     responds, “O my uncle, were they to place the sun in my right hand and the moon in my left, and ask me to abandon this course, I would not turn from it until Allāh makes it victorious or I perish therein.”

9.     Opposition & Migration (year 6)

  • Quraysh attempted various means to stop Islā Shouting so that the Qurʾān could not be heard. Propaganda, telling people that Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ    was insane and should not be heard. Seeking advice from the Jews on how to combat him academically, (Sūrah Yūsuf and Sūrah Kahf).
  • Al-Bazzār narrates: ʾAlī رضي الله عنه continued, “Indeed I saw the Quraysh grabbing Rasūlullāh صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ   . One held him while another violently shook him. They were saying, ‘You are the one who made the gods one!’ By Allāh! None of us dared go near except Abū Bakr. He struck at one of them, pulled back another and shook another, whilst saying, ‘Woe unto you! Do you kill a man for saying my Lord is Allāh?’”
  • Torture – Bilāl رضي الله عنه dragged through the streets. Beaten.
  • Khabbāb رضي الله عنه branded with heated iron.
  • Ṭalḥah رضي الله عنه seen dragged through the streets of Makkah as a young man. A woman was the most severe in abusing him. A foreigner asked who she was, it was his own mother.
  • Sumayyah رضي الله عنها  the first martyr. Abū Jahl speared her through her private part.
  • Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ   gave permission to the persecuted Muslims to migrate to Abysinnia, Ḥabshah, Ethiopia. 15 Muslims migrated the first time,e.g. ʿUthmān.
  • Negus, an-Najāshī, title of the Emperor, not name.
  • Christian ruler known for his justice.
  • They returned after 3 months, heard false rumour that the Quraysh accepted Islā
  • Some accepted protection of Quraysh leaders.
  • 2nd migration was more than 70. This time the Quraysh sent a delegation under Amr bin al-ʿĀṣ to retrieve the “rebels and trouble makers”
  • Jaʿfar bin Abī Ṭālib defended the Muslim position. He had refused the Quraysh example of bowing before the Emperor.
  • His speech is lauded by scholars as the one of the best concise and comprehensive invitations to Islā
  • فقال له جعفر: أيها الملك كنا قوما على الشرك نعبد الاوثان ونأكل الميتة ونسئ الجوار، يستحل المحارم بعضنا من بعض في سفك الدماء وغيرها، لا نحل شيئا ولا نحرمه.
    فبعث الله إلينا نبيا من أنفسنا نعرف وفاءه وصدقه وأمانته فدعانا إلى أن نعبد الله وحده لا شريك له ونصل الارحام ونحمي الجوار ونصلي لله عزوجل، ونصوم له، ولا نعبد غيره.،
  • “O King! We were a people upon polytheism. We worshipped idols and ate carrion. We forgot our neighbours and regarded the unlawful as lawful, in that we shed each other’s blood amongst other things. We had no real concept of the permitted and the prohibited. Allāh then sent a Prophet unto us. We knew his loyalty, honesty and trustworthiness. He called us to worship God alone, without any partners; to maintain relations; to protect neighbours; that we pray unto God, fast for His sake, worshipping none but Him.” [Ibn Hishām]
  • The Emperor granted the Muslims protection and evicted the Quraysh delegation with their gifts. It is probable that he died upon Islā Rasūlullāh صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ   performed the funeral of a Negus although the body was in another continent. It is probable that this was a second Negus and both were Muslims.

 

10.                        The Boycott years (7-9)

  • ʿUmar bin ʾal-Khaṭṭāb, arch-enemy of Islām becomes great defender of Islām, Dārul ʾArqam. First public cry of Takbīr which is how Muslims express joy. Not hand-clapping and other pagan customs.
  • Abū Jahl led the Quraysh to impose a boycott on Banū Hāshim which would last three years.
  • They were not allowed food, drink, trade, marriage with other clans, and went into exile in the Glen of Abū Ṭālib.
  • Non-Muslim Hāshimīs maintained solidarity and accepted exile as well, excluding Abū Lahab.
  • Banū Muṭṭalib voluntarily joined Banū Hāshim. Some laws of Sharīʿah remain specific to Banū Hāshim and Banū Muṭṭalib.
  • Extreme hunger, eating leaves.
  • Muṭʿim bin ʿAdī and others used to smuggle in some food.
  • Eventually Zuhayr, son of Ātikah bint ʿAbdil Muṭṭalib led some Quraysh to tear up the boycott decree. Allāh had already sent termites to eat the document, excluding, “Bismikallāhumma”

 

11.                        The Year of Sorrow

  • Shortly after the boycott ended Abū Ṭālib died.
  • Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ   begged him to recite the Kalimah, but upon the taunting of Abū Jahl, “Are you going to leave the religion of Abdul Muṭṭalib?” he refused and insisted that he was dying on his father’s religion.
  • Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ   was greatly grieved when his beloved uncle died on disbelief, but ordered Alī رضي الله عنه to bury him. Furthermore, he no longer had the protection of the chief of Banū Hāshim and persecution became more direct and violent.
  • Thereafter our mother, Khadījah رضي الله عنها , died. Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ   never smiled for months thereafter.
  • Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ  had not married anyone else during her lifetime.
  • She used to take food to the Cave of Ḥirāʾ. It was she who comforted Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ   during his anxiety after the first revelation and was his pillar of strength. She was the first female believer. She spent all her wealth on him and his cause. He always remembered her and sent gifts to her friends, to the extent that ʿĀishah felt feminine discomfort in regards her status, despite never having met her.
  • Rasūlullāh صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ   sought the protection of aṭ-Ṭāʾif, the town associated with his the tribe of his childhood, Banū Saʿd.
  • The chiefs rejected him and allowed the rabble to stone him till his feet bled.
  • The angel in charge of the mountains around aṭ-Ṭāʾif offered to crush the town, but Rasūlullāh صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ   refused, hoping their progeny would be believers.
  • However, Adas, a Christian slave embraced Islām and a delegation of Jinn overhead his recitation and embraced Islām, as mentioned in Sūrah al-Jinn.

12.                        Miʿrāj

  • A consolation for Rasūlullāh صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ   for his great sorrow, and also indicates the status of Khadījah رضي الله عنها.
  • Isrāʾ – night journey – authenticated by the Qurʾā
  • From the Ḥaṭīm. Jibrīl now washed the heart of Rasūlullāh صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ for the second time.
  • The exact date is not known, not even the year for certain. As Muslims we commemorate the lessons and commands, i.e. Ṣalāh, not the anniversary.
  • Isrā, first half of the journey was earth city (Makkah) to earth city (Baytul Muqaddas). Second half was to heaven (Miʿrāj). This may be symbolic of rights of created and Creator.
  • Performs Ṣalāh, leading all the previous Prophets. Muḥammad صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ    is the Imām of Ambiyāʾ.
  • Jibrīl asks him to choose between wine and milk.
  • Ascension to the Heavens. Each gate-keeper angels asks, “Who is this? Was he called for?” Stories that heavens were specially decorated in preparation are false and have no basis in Ḥadīth.
  • At each heaven specific prophets welcome him, from Ādam to Ibrāhīm.
  • 50 Ṣalāh made compulsory, reduced by 5-10 at the insistence of Mūsā, until 5 for which we are rewarded 50.
  • Various scenes of Paradise and Hell.
  • When he related this to the Quraysh they mocked him and demanded evidence. He described the Masjid as Allāh showed him. The masjid was used as rubbish dump. This does not mean the building did not exist as some claim. Further when Umar conquered Baytul Muqaddas, he cleaned the Masjid, not built it.
  • Abū Bakr earned his titles of ʾaṣ-Ṣidīq on this occasion when he immediately accepted the word of Rasūlullāh صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ    without any doubt.

13.                        Oath of ʿAqabah

  • Various tries came to Makkah for business and pilgrimage.
  • Having not convinced the Quraysh and Ṭāʾif, Rasūlullāh صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ   turned to other tribes.
  • He focussed on the prominent tribes for practical reasons, e.g. Kindah, Banū Shaybah, Banū Ḥanīfah. All rejected.
  • At this early stage when Muslims were few in number and politically insignificant, Rasūlullāh صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ    already promised the conquest of Persia to whoever accepted his message. Prophecy can only be accepted by those of faith when it seems impossible. There is nothing amazing about accepting what seems materially bound to happen.
  • The Aws and Khazraj, two clans of Azd, had decimated each other in wars lasting years over petty issues and acutely needed a leader. They were politically unimportant, except for the location of their city, Yathrib, on the trade route to Syria.
  • They understood more about Prophethood because the Jews lived in their city and declared that they awaited a Prophet. In fact two Levite clans built Yathrib at the site where they expected him to appear.
  • Rasūlullāh صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ    met 6 people of Khazraj at ʾAqabah from Yathrib, they were keen. They recognised this to be the promised Prophet and accepted.
  • They returned home and spread Islā The next year 12 of both clans rendered the First Oath of ʿAqabah – oath of Islām
  • Rasūlullāh r sent Musʿab bin ʿUmayr to teach Islā The people called him al-Muqriʾ, the Reader. When there was 40 Muslims Musʿab started the first Jumuʿah at the house of Asʿad bin Zurārah. People would always remember Asʿad at the time of Jumuʿah.
  • The following year 71 men and 2 women pledged the Second Oath of ʾAqabah, but insisted that Rasūlullāh صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ   would never leave them. This time oath of Islām combined with political allegiance.

14.                        Hijrah

  • When Muslims later met to discuss when to start dating their calendar, Hijrah was chosen over Mawlūd, revelation of Qurʾān, etc.
  • Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ    allowed his followers to go first. He would leave at the end. Thus was his character. Leadership is responsibility, not seeking privileges.
  • The Quraysh tried to stop the Muslims. Thus families were split, e.g Umm Salmah, her husband and child.
  • They had to leave their wealth behind, some had to give up everything, e.g. Ṣuhayb “Rūmī”
  • All had to go secretly except ʿUmar, who openly announced his Hijrah. He arms himself, makes Tawāf and calls, “Whoever wishes to make his wife a widow and children orphans, then come and meet me…”
  • Abū Bakr was not granted permission because he was destined to accompany Muḥammad صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ     When told he wept for joy. He had only 5,000 dirham left out of 40,000 before Islām. He spent everything on Islām.
  • ʿAlī was left behind to give back the trusts. Despite their opposition, the Quraysh trusted al-Amīn صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ    so much, they used to leave their valuables with him.

15.                        Hijrah of Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ

  • Meeting at Darun Nadwah. Imprisonment and exile rejected. Murder was the only option left but the clan of the murder would be held responsible. Abū Jahl proposed a man of each clan join in the murder so no single clan could be blamed.
  • Rasūlullāh صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ    emerged from Khadījah’s house, cast sand upon them, reciting from Yāsīn, they did not see him.
  • Rasūlullāh صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ    turned to look last time at Makkah, “O Makkah, you are the best of Allāh’s lands and most beloved. If not that your people have expelled me, I would never have left you.”
  • Headed south instead of north, tactics.
  • Status of Abū Bakr رضي الله عنه, Sūrah Tawbah, “Allah is with us,” i.e. him and Rasūlullāh صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ    as they hid in the Cave of Thawr.
  • Surāqah bin Mālik, horse kept sinking as he attempted to attack. Begged for written word of protection. Rasūlullāh صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ    predicted that he would wear the Persian Emperor’s bracelets. Occurred in time of ʿUmar.

16.                        Description of al-Madīnah, Arrival at Qubāʾ

  • Built by two Jewish clans in the time of Mūsā, awaiting the final prophet.
  • They were traders while the later Yemeni Azdīs were farmers.
  • Yathrib was renamed Madīnah, whoever says Yathrib should seek forgiveness.
  • Its south was protected by thick date plantations, the east and west by lava soil. The lava soil caused most of the water to be bitter, hence the drinking of nabīz (soaking dates in the water).
  • Entered 12th Rabīʿul ʾAwwal. This year was later renamed as first year of Islāmic calendar.
  • Anṣār waited everyday until the noon heat drove them indoors. A Jew happened to see and called out. The Anṣār came rushing out. Women on the rooftops, men waving swords and children reciting Ṭalʿal badru ʿalaynā.
  • Spent few days at Qubāʾ. Built Masjid and performed his first Jumuʿah there, then continued to centre of Madīnah.

17.                        Madīnah

  • Camel allowed to roam, stopped on the land of orphans, Sahl and Suhayl. Bought for al-Masjid an-Nabawī site. In the interim Rasūlullāh صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ    stayed with his nearest Anṣārī relative Abū Ayyūb was from Najjār as was ʿAbdul Muṭṭalib’s mother. Tribal connections were important amongst Arabs. Allāh sets events in motions long before. Just as Ḥubbā bint Ḥulayl was mother of ʿAbd Manāf, which had repercussions after Ḥudaybiyah.
  • Rasūlullāh صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ    personally helped with the construction.
  • Simple non-solid structure with, rain used to come through the roof.
  • Two notable first encounters – ʿAbdullāh bin Salām, Chief Rabbi, who hears:
  • يا أيها الناس: أفشوا السلام، وأطعموا الطعام، وصِلُوا الأرحام، وصلّوا بالليل والناس نيام، تدخلوا الجنة بسلام) رواه أحمد والترمذي
  • Salmān, the Persian , who finds Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ   in extremely emotional encounter after years of searching for the truth, and much sacrifice.

18.                        The New Social Structure

  • Muʾākhāh – the brotherhood. Each Muhājir was allocated with an Anṣārī brother. The Anṣār willing and most generously assisted their brethren and initially the Muhājirūn were made their heirs before the laws of inheritance were finalised in the Qurʿān.
  • The generosity is unmatched in human history. The Qurʿān says of the Anṣār, “They give preference over their own selves even though they are poverty-stricken”
  • Great praise for the Anṣār in Ḥadīth, “The sign of faith is love for the Anṣār…” “By Allāh! You are the most beloved people unto me.” They accepted when the rest of humanity rejected and thus included themselves amongst the rejected ones.
  • However, people have also exaggerated. Whilst Saʿd bin Rabīʿah رضي الله عنه did offer half his wealth and one of his two wives for his Muhājir bother, ʿAbdur Raḥmān bin ʿAwf رضي الله عنه, ʿAbduraḥmān refused. He accepted assistance only in so far as starting off his own trade and son became independent. It’s incorrect what some say, “The Anṣār gave half their wealth and divorced their wives for the Muhājirūn.”
  • Islāmic character is that those who have must try to assist. Those who don’t have should seek independence and not live on hand-outs.
  • The Jews entered into a pact of mutual defence. The Jews violated the pact. An-Naḍīr tried to kill Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ   and were expelled.  Qurayzhah helped the enemy at Khandaq and were destroyed.
  • After the building of the Masjid, Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ   chose a spot for a Muslim business area. Trade was previously entirely Jewish. This is an example of the balance Islām teaches.

19.                        Badr

  • Abū Sufyān seized the Muslim property in Makkah, sold it in Syria to raise funds to attack Islā He was passing Madīnah returning to Makkah and had to be stopped.
  • At this stage the Anṣār were only bound by Oath of ʿAqabah, i.e. protect Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ   in Madīnah, there was no duty on them to confront Abū Sufyān, but their numbers were needed.
  • Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ   out of shyness asked the Muhājirūn thrice if they would set out. Saʿd bin Muʿāẓ (may Allāh be pleased with him) realised that Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ    was referring to his people. “Perhaps you think, O Messenger of Allāh, that the Anṣār have only undertaken to help you on their own territory. I wish to tell you on behalf of the Anṣār that you may lead us where you like, align us with whom you like, or break relations with whomsoever you see fit. You may take from our wealth what you want and leave for us what you want, but what you take would be more beloved than what you leave us. We shall follow whatever you command. By Allāh, if you go to Bark Ghimdān [symbol for far place] we shall follow you. By Allāh, should you jump into the sea, we would jump with you.”
  • The Muhājir “troops” were the same people who sat behind each other to cover their nakedness, who fainted in Ṣalāh due to lack of food. They were now called to fight and none hesitated.
  • ʿUmayr bin Abī Waqqās, young boy, hid so that Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ   would not send him back. He was martyred.
  • Abū Sufyān received intelligence and changed course whilst the Quraysh sent a fully equipped army of 1000 to meet the 313 Muslims.
  • Reaching Badr Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ   showed where specific enemies would be killed. It happened exactly.
  • Night before Battle of Badr, Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ   spent weeping, “O Allāh, if this little group is destroyed then never again will You be worshipped.” – Spiritual combined with material the next day of taking up arms. Middle path is Sunnah.
  • 17th Ramaḍān, first year that fast had been ordained. Some continued fasting some took leeway. Neither party reprimanded the other.
  • Triple duel before the battle, Muslims win.
  • Angels descend. The two boys of Afrāʾ and ʿAbdullāh bin Masʾūd (may Allāh be pleased with them) kill Abū Jahl. 70 Quraysh killed and 70 captured. 6 Muhājirūn and 8 Anṣār martyred.
  • Muslims give their food to the prisoners and remain hungry.

20.                        Uḥud (3 Shawwāl 3 Hijrī)

  • After Badr hypocrites arose under ʿAbdullāh bin Ubayy ibn Salūl.
  • Kaʿb bin Ashraf the Jew incited the Quraysh to avenge Badr.
  • The Quraysh army arrived 3000 strong, accompanied by women such as Hind, wife of Abū Sufyān (may Allāh be pleased with them). She later much regretted her ignorance at Uḥud and distinguished herself in the cause of Islām in such battles like Yarmūk.
  • Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ    and Ibn Ubayy thought to defend Madīnah. Muslims who missed Badr wished to engage the enemy. They prevailed.
  • 1000 set out against 3000 Quraysh.
  • Ibn Ubayy removed his 300 followers, causing anxiety amongst the remaining 700.
  • Two clans of the Anṣār thought to abandon the battle – a major sin – but remained. Allāh so loves the Anṣār that He proclaimed himself their friend in Sūrah Āl ʿImrān “wallāhu walīyumā” upon this incident of disobedience, not when they were obedient.
  • Jubayr bin Muṭʿīm and Hind arranged for Waḥshī, an expert javelin thrower and slave to kill Ḥamzah (may Allāḥ be pleased with him), which he did.
  • Flag-bearer, Muṣʿāb bin ʿUmayr martyred.
  • 50 Muslim archers stationed on hill left their position when it seemed the Muslims were winning. This allowed the Quraysh cavalry to attack from the other direction and the Muslims were routed especially when rumour spread that Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ   had been martyred.
  • Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ   thrown with a stone, and front teeth smashed.
  • Ṭalḥah binʿUbaydillāh shielded him with his own body against the arrows until his hand was paralysed.
  • Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ   was too weak to climb to a rock to sit and offer Zhuhr. Ṭalḥah carried him.
  • Amongst who died defending Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ   was Abū Dahdah al-Anṣārī who had donated 500 trees in exchange for a tree in Paradise.
  • The Quraysh gave up trying to reach Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ  . Abū Sufyān called out that Uḥud was in exchange for Badr. Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ    told ʿUmar to reply, “Our dead are in Paradise. Your dead are in Hell.” Abū Sufyān called out, “We have ʿUzzā and you have none.” Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ    told ʿUmar to reply, “Allāh is our Protector and you have none.”

 

21.                        Khandaq (Shawwāl 5 Hijrī)

  • Jews of Banū Naḍīr orchestrated an alliance against the Muslims. They would supply a year’s harvest from Khaybar, the Quraysh 4000 men and the Ghaṭfān 6000 men. The Jews of Qurayzhah inside Madīnah would betray the Muslims.
  • Salmān the Persian رضي الله عنه proposed the Persian tactic of digging a trench at the vulnerable northern front.
  • Muslims worked through extremely harsh winter and hunger. Abū Ṭalḥah رضي الله عنه showed Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ   a slab of stone tied to his stomach to placate his hunger. Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ    showed him two.
  • Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ    called out, “O Allāh! There is truly no life but that of the Hereafter. Forgive the Anṣār and the Muhājirūn.” They replied, “We are those who have pledged to Muḥammad, to wage Jihād forever as long as we last.”
  • A large rock could not be destroyed. Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ   himself smashed it in three blows. In each blow he prophesied conquest over Syria, Persia and Yemen in turn – at a time when the Muslims seemed to face utter destruction.
  • Miracle of the increasing barley and mutton at the house of Jābir bin ʿAbdillāh رضي الله عنه .
  • Severe siege for a month. Nuʿaym bin Masʿūd رضي الله عنه secretly embraced Islām and managed to turn the Arabs and Jews against each other. The lack of morale combined with a fierce hurricane made the Arabs withdraw.
  • “None of you shall pray ʿAṣr except at Qurayzhah” – differences of opinion of the command existed even in the lifetime of Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ  .

22.                        Hudaybiyah (Ẓul Qaʿdah 6 Hijrī)

  • Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ   saw from Allāh that he was performing ʿUmrah. Ṣaḥābah prepared to join him as pilgrims, not armed as an army. They dressed as such and brought animals for sacrifice to make their peaceful intentions clear.
  • The Quraysh intended to stop the 1400 Muslims. They encamped at Ḥudaybīyah, on the border of the Ḥaram, where the Quraysh could not attack.
  • ʿUthmān رضي الله عنه sent as ambassador. The Quraysh respected him offered to let him perform Ṭawā He refused if Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ    could not, so they detained him in anger.
  • Muslims heard that ʿUthmānرضي الله عنه had been killed. Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ    called on the Muslims to pledge to fight to the death under a tree. Even in that serious moment Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ    made time to be light hearted with Salmāh bin Akwā رضي الله عنه .
  • Eventually negotiations ensued and a treaty signed. The Ṣahābah were greatly offended by the deletion of Basmallāh and “Muḥammad Rasūlullāh” and the apparently harsh terms, but Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ   was practical and Allāh intended something great.
  • With peace achieved, the Muslims could interact with other tribes and spread the message. More people embraced Islām in the next two years than in the previous 19 years.

23.                        Khaybar & Muʿtah

  • Khaybar, 112 km NE of Madīnah. The Jews there were once again plotting with Ghaṭfān against the Muslims.
  • Shortly after returning to Madīnah, Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ   marched against Khaybar. Only the participants of Ḥudaybiyah were allowed to join.
  • Forts fell except for that of Marhab. Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ  , “Tomorrow I shall give the flag to a man who loves Allāh and His Rasūl and he will conquer the fort. ”
  • ʿAlī’s رضي الله عنه eyes was afflicted. Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ    applied his saliva to his eyes and it was cured. He gave him the flag and he was victorious over Marhab.
  • A Slave embraced Islām and was martyred in the battle. Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ   said, “I saw two Ḥūr standing by his side, although he never made a Sajdah to Allā”
  • Khaybar was conquered and the Jews allowed to remain and farm on condition that half their crops would go to the Muslims. ʿAbdullāh bin Rawāḥāh رضي الله عنه used to divide the crops and let the Jews choose which half they wanted.
  • 3000 Muslims marched to Muʾta when the Roman governor killed the ambassador of Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ  , Ḥārith binʿUmayr al-ʾAzdī رضي الله عنه .
  • The first commander, Zayd bin Ḥārithah رضي الله عنه was killed, followed by Jaʾfar bin Abī Ṭālib رضي الله عنه . He was 33 and had just returned from a decade in Abyssinia. Then ʿAbdullāh bin Rawāḥāh رضي الله عنه .
  • Khālid bin Wālid assumed command and returned the troops home.
  • The Muslims derided them as runaways, but Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ   said they were those who retreat to return to battle.

24.                        Conquest of Makkah (Friday 21 Ramaḍān 8 Hijrī)

  • As allowed by the Treaty of Ḥudaybiyah, Banū Bakr aligned itself with the Quraysh whilst Khuẓāʿah allied with the Muslims, feeling closer to the descendant of ʿAbd Manāf whose mother was from Khazāʿah.
  • Bakr attacked Khuzāʿah with Quraysh assistance, who even encouraged them to massacre Khuzāʿah when they sort refuge in the borders of the Ḥaram.
  • Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ   sent ultimatum to Quraysh – pay blood money; or break alliance with the offending section of Bakr; or face the consequences. The Quraysh decided on war.
  • Ḥātib bin Abī Baltaʾah رضي الله عنه wrote to inform the Quraysh of the plan of attack. His messenger was caught and he was forgiven. He is one of the 313 of Badr.
  • 10,000 Ṣaḥābah set out for Makkah. Even the Bible mentions this event.
  • Abū Sufyān رضي الله عنه met Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ    who was encamped outside Makkah. He embraced Islām and received guarantee of safety.
  • Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ   entered Makkah on his camel. He carried the recently deceased Zaynab’s son with him. His best daughter who suffered much on his behalf. He was reciting Sūrah Fatḥ.
  • Saʿd bin ʿUbādah shouted, “Today is a day of massacre. The Kaʿbah offers no sanctuary…” Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ  , “Today is a day of mercy, the Kaʿbah will be covered…” origin of Kaʿbah covering
  • After Ṭawāf, Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ   personally began smashing the idols with his bow.
  • Standing on the steps, “There is no god but Allāh alone Who has no partner! He was true to His promise and helped His slave. It is He alone who defeated the allies… O gathering of Quraysh, what do you say I shall do to you?” “Good! For you are noble brother, son of a noble brother.” “Then I say to you what Yūsuf said to his brothers, ‘There is no blame upon you today.’ Go, you are free.”
  • Makkah embraced Islām, including Hind bint ʿUtbah.

 

25.                        Ḥunayn (10 Shawwāl 8 Hijrī)

  • After the submission of the Quraysh the Hawāzin led the Polytheists against Islām and were joined in war by Thaqīf (Tāʾif), Saʾd bin Bakr (tribe amongst whom Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ   had spent his childhood), etc.
  • They brought everything – cattle, women and children – to stake everything in the ultimate battle, to fight to the last.
  • Muslims were 10,000 from Madīnah. 2,000 from Makkah accompanying them were not yet all Muslim. Muslims felt confident due to their numbers.
  • Upon reaching Ḥunayn the Hawāzin attacked with rain of arrows and then charged. The Muslims seemed defeated and rumour spread that Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ   was martyred.
  • Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ   held firm on his white mule, surrounded by few Muhājirūn and Anṣā ʿAbbās رضي الله عنه  held the mule’s bridle and called out to the Muslims. They rallied and defeated the enemy. The lesson was reliance on Allāh, not numbers or material advantage.
  • A woman of Saʾd bin Bakr makes a commotion claiming to be the sister of Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ  . She is brought before and when he asks for proof she says, “I still have the marks of the bite that you bit me on my back,” i.e. when they were both children.
  • The New Muslims were treated generously from the spoils and youngsters amongst the Anṣār complained. Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ   scolded them. “Did I not find you astray and through me Allāḥ guided you. You were poor and through me Allāh made you rich. You were divided and through me Allāh united you. ” But amazingly praised them at the time when one does not think to praise subordinates, “But you could have said… you were discredited and we believed you, abandoned and we helped you, expelled and we sheltered you, poor and we gave you resources.”

 

26.                        Tabūk (Rajab 9 Hijrī)

  • Major distance, intense heat to attack to attack the Romans. The hypocrites used various excuses to fall back. It was so difficult physically and psychologically that Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ   openly announced the destination unlike other battles.
  • ʿUthmān رضي الله عنه donated 1000 dīnār, ʿUmar رضي الله عنه  over half his wealth, Abū Bakr رضي الله عنه   gave everything. ʿAlī رضي الله عنه  left behind as deputy.
  • Passed the old lands of Thamūd in haste and forbade the use of its water. Today we make tourist sites of lands of punishment and use Dead Sea products.
  • Various towns surrendered and the Romans retreated, so Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ   headed back to Madīnah. Pagans of Arabia were now finally convinced that Islām’s victory was permanent.
  • On the way back Zayd bin ʾArqam رضي الله عنه overheard Ibn Salūl say, “When we return to Madīnah, the noble ones will evict the despicable one from her.” Zayd was a boy so some of the Anṣār were hesitant about taking his word over a chief’s, but Allāh sent revelation, confirming his testimony.

 

27.                        Arabia Submits

  • Quraysh, Hawāzin and Rome had all been humbled and most were now convinced.
  • The tribes now started flocking into Allāh’s Dīn. And 9 Hijrī is known as the year of Delegations. Some came before Tabūk, most needed convincing with Tabūk.
  • Banū Tamīm first challenged the Muslims to a poetry contest and submitted when defeated in the contest. Lesson – arm yourself with the means of the time.
  • ʿAbdul Qays, were the first of the east tribes to accept Islām in 5 Hijrī. Asajj was told he has two qualities Allāh loves, “Forbearance and deliberation before acting.” Consider how technology has destroyed this in us, we must press the reply and broadcast button immediately. They now sent a second delegation. They were forbidden glazed jars, used for wine. Lesson – what reminds and tempts to Ḥarām is to be avoided.
  • Saʾd bin Bakr sent Damām bin Thaʿlabah رضي الله عنه . He spoke very roughly in the Bedouin manner to Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ   . He embraced Islām, returned and converted the entire tribe in one day. Lesson – Allāh chooses who He wills. People of different types can all serve Islām.
  • “The people of Yemen have come to you. They have sensitive minds and the softest of hearts. Imān is Yemeni. Wisdom is Yemeni.” Gentle manners is inextricable linked to Imān.
  • Christians of Najrān sent a delegation. They accepted Islāmic rule but not Islām. Tolerance for other religions is part of Sharīʿah.
  • Kindah and Ḥanīfah who had rejected Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ   all those years back, now submitted. Although Banū Ḥanīfah turned away under a false prophet. Musaylamah the Liar.
  • Wāʾil bin Ḥujr رضي الله عنه , prince of Yemen. Embraced Islām and in his newness treated the secretary of Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ   , the 18 year old Muʿāwiyah رضي الله عنه   Made him walk bare feet all the way to Yemen. Yet Muʿāwiyah رضي الله عنه  assisted him when he came to power.

 

28.                        Signs of Impending Departure & Farewell

  • Sūrah Naṣr. Everyone rejoiced at its revelation. Abū Bakr رضي الله عنه however wept uncontrollably in sorrow. He alone understood that this was in fact the funeral announcement of Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ   .
  • “O Muʿāẓ, it may be that you will not meet me after this year of mine. Perhaps you will pass by this Masjid of mine and my grave.”
  • Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ   did not perform Ḥajj in 8 or 9 Hijrī despite being the ruler of Makkah. He sent Abū Bakr as his deputy as the Imām of Ḥajj. Annual Ḥajj is not Sunnah. He performed one recorded Ḥajj. Certainly only one in last 23 years of his life.
  • Every Ramaḍān Jibrīl used to revise what Qurʾān had been revealed thus far. In the Ramaḍan of 10 Hijrī he made Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ   recite twice instead of the usual once. Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ    understood that his time was near. He would not witness another earthly Ramaḍān or Ḥajj season.
  • Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ   anounced his intention for Ḥajj and set on Saturday 25th Ẓul Qaʿdah 10 Hijrī.
  • Eventually more than 100,000 joined.
  • Reached Makkah 4th Ẓil Ḥijjah. Immediately kissed Ḥajar and performed Ṭawā
  • Two Farewell Sermons. Sanctity of property. Blood vengeance of pre-Islām abolished. Usury abolished. “Fear Allāh in regards women…you are responsible for providing for them..” Hold on to the Qurʿān to avoid going astray. “Time has completed the cycle to reach the same point when Allāh created the heavens and earth.”
  • Yet the opening and closing statements were indications of bidding farewell. “O people hear my words, for I do not know if I shall meet you again after this year and in this place again.”
  • “Have I delivered the message? Have I delivered the message?”
  • Whilst pelting Jamarāt, Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ   stopped and said, “Learn your rites. For I do not know whether I am likely to perform the Ḥajj after this occasion.”

 

 

29.                        To the Companion Most High

  • After returning from Ḥajj, Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ   went to Uhud. He prayed for the martyrs in the manner of one bidding farewell.
  • Late one night in Ṣafar 11 Hijrī Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ   went to pray for the deceased in Baqīʿ. The next morning his ailment began.
  • ʿĀʾishah, “O my head!” “No, O ʿĀʾishah, O my head.”
  • At house of Maymūnah, asked wives permission to be nursed at one house, ʿĀʾishah’s.
  • Faḍl bin ʿAbbās رضي الله عنه and ʿAlī رضي الله عنه  had to support him. He walked feet dragging, cloth tied to the head due to the pain.
  • Summoned ʾUsāmah رضي الله عنه commanding him to march to Syria. Army left after his passing.
  • Only money left was 9 Dirham. “How shall I face Allāh with these in my possession?” and gave them away. (ZAR 213.84)
  • Kept falling unconscious, so appointed Abū Bakr رضي الله عنه as Imām, except for few prayers when he felt better.
  • Last prayer he led was Maghrib, recited wal-Mursalā
  • All doors attached to the Majid shut except for that of Abū Bakr رضي الله عنه .
  • Last sermon, “I advise you in regards the Anṣār. They are my friends and as if part of my own liver. They have fulfilled their obligations and nothing remains now for them except reward. Accept their good and overlook their wrong.”
  • Last night Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ   spent on earth there was no oil to light his lamp. ʿĀʾishah had to borrow oil from others.
  • Last public appearance. Monday during Fajr Ṣalāh, “Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ    lifted the curtain and kept his eyes fixed on us …. He smiled and then laughed…. And that was the day on which he died.”
  • Last command later that day, “[Guard your] Ṣalāh. [Care for] those whom your right hands possess. Expel the Jews and Christians from the Arabian Peninsula.”
  • Saw Miswāk in ʾAbdurraḥmān bin Abī Bakr’s رضي الله عنه ʿĀʾishah softened it and gave it to him. Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ    cleaned his teeth and dropped it out of weakness.
  • With his head in our Mother’s lap, saying his last words, “Allāhumma ar-Rafīq al-ʾAʿlā” Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ   left to the Companion Most High.

 

30.                        Description in Tirmiẓi, if Allāh wills 30 nights

عن  أنس قال خدمت النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم عشر سنين فما قال لي أف قط وما قال لشيء صنعته لم صنعته ولا لشيء تركته لم تركته وكان رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم من أحسن الناس خلقا ولا مسست خزا قط ولا حريرا ولا شيئا كان ألين من كف رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ولا شممت مسكا قط ولا عطرا كان أطيب من عرق رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم

  • Anas رضي الله عنه narrated, “I served the Prophet صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ    for ten years. He never uttered the slightest sound of displeasure and never said for anything, ‘Why did you do that, why did you not do that?’ Nor for something that I left, ‘Why did you leave that?’ Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ    was amongst the most beautiful of people in his appearance. I have never touched brocade or even silk or anything for that matter which is softer than the palm of Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ   . I have never smelt musk or any other perfume more fragrant than the perspiration of Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ   .
  • : كَانَ عَلِيٌّ إِذَا وَصَفَ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ  ، قَالَ : ” لَمْ يَكُنْ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ   بِالطَّوِيلِ الْمُمَّغِطِ ، وَلا بِالْقَصِيرِ الْمُتَرَدِّدِ ، وَكَانَ رَبْعَةً مِنَ الْقَوْمِ ، لَمْ يَكُنْ بِالْجَعْدِ الْقَطَطِ ، وَلا بِالسَّبْطِ ، كَانَ جَعْدًا رَجِلا ، وَلَمْ يَكُنْ بِالْمُطَهَّمِ , وَلا بِالْمُكَلْثَمِ ، وَكَانَ فِي وَجْهِهِ تَدْوِيرٌ , أَبْيَضُ مُشَرَبٌ ، أَدْعَجُ الْعَيْنَيْنِ ، أَهْدَبُ الأَشْفَارِ ، جَلِيلُ الْمُشَاشِ وَالْكَتَدِ ، أَجْرَدُ , ذُو مَسْرُبَةٍ ، شَثْنُ الْكَفَّيْنِ وَالْقَدَمَيْنِ ، إِذَا مَشَى تَقَلَّعَ كَأَنَّمَا يَنْحَطُّ فِي صَبَبٍ ، وَإِذَا الْتَفَتَ الْتَفَتَ مَعًا ، بَيْنَ كَتِفَيْهِ خَاتَمُ النُّبُوَّةِ ، وَهُوَ خَاتَمُ النَّبِيِّينَ ، أَجْوَدُ النَّاسِ صَدْرًا ، وَأَصْدَقُ النَّاسِ لَهْجَةً ، وَأَلْيَنُهُمْ عَرِيكَةً ، وَأَكْرَمُهُمْ عِشْرَةً ، مَنْ رَآهُ بَدِيهَةً هَابَهُ ، وَمَنْ خَالَطَهُ مَعْرِفَةً أَحَبَّهُ ، يَقُولُ نَاعِتُهُ : لَمْ أَرَ قَبْلَهُ , وَلا بَعْدَهُ مِثْلَهُ صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ
  • Whenever Ali radiallahu anhu described the nobel features of Rasulullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam), he used to say: “Rasulullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam) was neither very tall nor short, but of a medium stature among people.  His hair was neither very curly nor very straight, but had a slight wave in it.  He did not have a big body nor a round face, but his face was slightly round (meaning he did not have a fully round face nor a fully elongated face, bur in between the two).  The complexion of Rasulullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam) was white with redness in it.  The eyes of Rasulullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam) were extremely black.  His eyelashes were long.  The joints of the body (e.g. elbows and knees etc.) were large, likewise the portion between the two shoulders was broad and fully fleshed.  There was no hair (more than normal) on his body. He had a thin line of hair running from the chest to the navel.  The hands and feet of Rasulullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam) were fully fleshed.  When he walked, he lifted his legs with vigour, as if he were descending to a low-lying place.  When he addressed a person he turned his whole body towards that person. The seal of Prophethood was situated between his shoulders.  He was a last of all prophets.  He was the most generous and the most truthful.  He was the most kind-hearted and came from a most noble family.   Any person who saw him suddenly would become struck with awe. Anyone who came in close contact with him, and knew his excellent character would love him.  Anyone who described him can only say: “I have not never seen anyone before or after like him صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ  . ” [Shamāʿil lit-Tirmiẓi. Translation adapted from Mawlānā Yūsuf Karān]

 

و صلى الله على راكب البراق كامل الأخلاق

Interview on Jewish Radio – Gharqad Hadith

عن أبى هريرة أن رسول الله -صلى الله عليه وسلم- قال « لا تقوم الساعة حتى يقاتل المسلمون اليهود فيقتلهم المسلمون ، حتى يختبئ اليهودى من وراء الحجر والشجر ، فيقول الحجر أو الشجر : يا مسلم يا عبد الله هذا يهودى خلفى فتعال فاقتله ، إلا الغرقد فإنه من شجر اليهود

Abū Hurayrah رضى الله عنه narrated that Allah’s Messenger صلى الله عليه و سلم  said:

The Hour shall not arise until the Muslims fight the Jews. The Muslims will slay them to extent that the Jew will hide behind stones and trees. The stone or the tree will call out, “O Muslim! O slave of Allāh! This is a Jew hiding behind me. Come and kill him!”

The exception will be the Gharqad [Boxthorn/ Goji], for it is a tree of the Jews. [Muslim]

 

Interview held on Monday morning 3 April 2017. Uphill task of explaining the context honestly  (hopefully unoffensively) without compromising our own beliefs

سليمان الكندي
Twitter: @sulayman_Kindi

Lemons into Lemonade

عجبا لأمر المؤمن إن أمره كله خير ، وليس ذاك لأحد إلا للمؤمن ؛ إن أصابته سرّاء شكر ؛ فكان خيراً له ، وإن أصابته ضرّاء صبر ؛ فكان خيراً له . رواه مسلم 
Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said, “The affair of the believer of most amazing. His affair is good in its entirety, and that is for none but a believer. When happiness comes to him, he is grateful and that is good for him. When harm strikes him he is patient and that is good for him.” [Muslim]
It is amongst the miracles of Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam that his words were concise, yet are a deep ocean from which more and more pearls can be extracted from ever deeper levels. Besides the obvious injunction of inculcating the qualities of gratitude and patience and adopting them as per occasion, the Hadith also implies that situations are not always good or bad for an individual in themselves, but become good or bad depending on our attitude. This theme is found in other Ahadith as well. For example, when Mu’aaz bin Jabal radiyallahu ‘anhu bids his final tearful farewell, Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam clarifies that however geographically far he may be, he is in fact close to Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam as long as he adopts Taqwa. In contradistinction, one who has no Taqwa is far from him however physically close he may be.
Death is the decree of Allah. Those who misbehave and break the laws of Allah, such as inheritance and Hijaab, make the situation into a bad one for their Aakhirah. Those who are patient and uphold Allah’s Laws, despite their personal grief, make the same situation into a benefit for their Aakhirah.
At the end of the year many Muslims are going to graduate from various institutions with various qualifications. This is not an accomplishment in itself. Some will use their achievements for personal aggrandisement  and accumulation of wealth. They will become armchair generals in their old age and berate everyone besides themselves for the state of the Ummah. see Othello & the mental dichotomy of muslim intelligentsia. There will be others who will earn a Halaal income and use their every resource in service of Allah. They are successful.
A personal defect I have to work on, is my penchant for focussing on negatives. I should be grateful that Allah has given me Tawfeeq to overcome this in one matter and turn a negative into a positive.
A certain school catering for “special needs” primary school students in the northern suburbs of Johannesburg is said to be possibly the best in the country for this purpose. Wednesdays first period is religion period. Other students would go to their religious teachers, but up until now the Muslim students had not been catered for. An Egyptian mother had her own mini Tahreer Square and arranged for me come in on Wednesdays. 
However, the principal stipulated that she wants a written report of whatever I teach. Besides my laziness for report writing in general, I somehow got the impression that the other religions were exempt from this requirement. (Did I mention that the school administration is Jewish dominated?) I put up a weak defence that I would not formally teach for the first 2 weeks, so would not report in the beginning, but it then occurred to me to use the advantages of what is supposed to be an incumbrance. In effect, Islam can be explained to a Kaafir in the same way I would teach special needs youngsters. These people would never be interested in learning about Islam in an authentic manner, but by me presenting my reports in a certain manner, they would be forced to hear the words of Allah and His Rasul  sallallahu alayhi wa sallam, like it or not! Lemons into lemonade….
Here is a copy of my first report:
_____________ School: Islamic Classes Report
Lesson 1: Islamic Greeting
Date: 12th October 2011
·         Had intended the first two meetings at least should be informal introductory meetings.
·         Spent 10-15 minutes in informal chat, getting to know and understand the students.
·         Concern that students would be aloof at initial stage unfounded. Students exhibited desire to express themselves.
·         Students insisted on learning something.
·         Commenced lesson on Islamic greeting, a basic emphasised in Islam.
·         Elicit response from students, “How did you greet me when I entered?” Correct group response.
·         Meaning of, “Salaam” not known. Played hangman game where answer, “PEACE” was achieved.
·         Muslim character, well-wishing, peace unto all.
·         Origin of Salaam – creation story of Adam peace be upon him.
·         Muslims manners require mentioning alayhis salaam (peace be upon him) after all prophets.
·         Exercise – recite name of prophet – Adam, Moses, Jesus…..  to elicit Islamic response.
·         Role play – each student to act as Adam (عليه السلام) and greet the “angels” who must reply.
·         Importance of Adam  (عليه السلام) in Quraan as father of ALL humanity. Hence Islam emphasises brotherhood irrespective of race, age, creed etc.
·         In first speeches when Prophet Muhammad  (peace and blessings be upon him) entered city of Madinah he said, “O people! Spread the greeting of peace amongst you.”
·         Every lesson to be permeated with Islamic creed directly or indirectly – monotheism of God and example and pure character of Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him).   
·         Role play – student to choose example with partner of greeting situation and enact.
سليمان الكندي
Sulayman al-Kindi