Herewith my notes for the Sīrah discussion I intend giving this year after Tarāwīḥ, Allāh willing. If we had all the time in the world we could not do justice to the greatest personality that ever walked the face of the earth. Yet in view of the lack of knowledge on the basics of his life by the general public I am using this platform for this purpose, on the premise that one can only truly love someone if one knows that person. As long as we are ignorant about the life and character of Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ our love for him cannot be as complete as it could be.
15. Hijrah of Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ
- Meeting at Darun Nadwah. Imprisonment and exile rejected. Murder was the only option left but the clan of the murder would be held responsible. Abū Jahl proposed a man of each clan join in the murder so no single clan could be blamed.
- Rasūlullāh صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ emerged from Khadījah’s house, cast sand upon them, reciting from Yāsīn, they did not see him.
- Rasūlullāh صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ turned to look last time at Makkah, “O Makkah, you are the best of Allāh’s lands and most beloved. If not that your people have expelled me, I would never have left you.”
- Headed south instead of north, tactics.
- Status of Abū Bakr رضي الله عنه, Sūrah Tawbah, “Allah is with us,” i.e. him and Rasūlullāh صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ as they hid in the Cave of Thawr.
- Surāqah bin Mālik, horse kept sinking as he attempted to attack. Begged for written word of protection. Rasūlullāh صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ predicted that he would wear the Persian Emperor’s bracelets. Occurred in time of ʿUmar.
16. Description of al-Madīnah, Arrival at Qubāʾ
- Built by two Jewish clans in the time of Mūsā, awaiting the final prophet.
- They were traders while the later Yemeni Azdīs were farmers.
- Yathrib was renamed Madīnah, whoever says Yathrib should seek forgiveness.
- Its south was protected by thick date plantations, the east and west by lava soil. The lava soil caused most of the water to be bitter, hence the drinking of nabīz (soaking dates in the water).
- Entered 12th Rabīʿul ʾAwwal. This year was later renamed as first year of Islāmic calendar.
- Anṣār waited everyday until the noon heat drove them indoors. A Jew happened to see and called out. The Anṣār came rushing out. Women on the rooftops, men waving swords and children reciting Ṭalʿal badru ʿalaynā.
- Spent few days at Qubāʾ. Built Masjid and performed his first Jumuʿah there, then continued to centre of Madīnah.
- Camel allowed to roam, stopped on the land of orphans, Sahl and Suhayl. Bought for al-Masjid an-Nabawī site. In the interim Rasūlullāh صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ stayed with his nearest Anṣārī relative Abū Ayyūb was from Najjār as was ʿAbdul Muṭṭalib’s mother. Tribal connections were important amongst Arabs. Allāh sets events in motions long before. Just as Ḥubbā bint Ḥulayl was mother of ʿAbd Manāf, which had repercussions after Ḥudaybiyah.
- Rasūlullāh صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ personally helped with the construction.
- Simple non-solid structure with, rain used to come through the roof.
- Two notable first encounters – ʿAbdullāh bin Salām, Chief Rabbi, who hears:
- يا أيها الناس: أفشوا السلام، وأطعموا الطعام، وصِلُوا الأرحام، وصلّوا بالليل والناس نيام، تدخلوا الجنة بسلام) رواه أحمد والترمذي
- Salmān, the Persian , who finds Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ in extremely emotional encounter after years of searching for the truth, and much sacrifice.
18. The New Social Structure
- Muʾākhāh – the brotherhood. Each Muhājir was allocated with an Anṣārī brother. The Anṣār willing and most generously assisted their brethren and initially the Muhājirūn were made their heirs before the laws of inheritance were finalised in the Qurʿān.
- The generosity is unmatched in human history. The Qurʿān says of the Anṣār, “They give preference over their own selves even though they are poverty-stricken”
- Great praise for the Anṣār in Ḥadīth, “The sign of faith is love for the Anṣār…” “By Allāh! You are the most beloved people unto me.” They accepted when the rest of humanity rejected and thus included themselves amongst the rejected ones.
- However, people have also exaggerated. Whilst Saʿd bin Rabīʿah رضي الله عنه did offer half his wealth and one of his two wives for his Muhājir bother, ʿAbdur Raḥmān bin ʿAwf رضي الله عنه, ʿAbduraḥmān refused. He accepted assistance only in so far as starting off his own trade and son became independent. It’s incorrect what some say, “The Anṣār gave half their wealth and divorced their wives for the Muhājirūn.”
- Islāmic character is that those who have must try to assist. Those who don’t have should seek independence and not live on hand-outs.
- The Jews entered into a pact of mutual defence. The Jews violated the pact. An-Naḍīr tried to kill Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ and were expelled. Qurayzhah helped the enemy at Khandaq and were destroyed.
- After the building of the Masjid, Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ chose a spot for a Muslim business area. Trade was previously entirely Jewish. This is an example of the balance Islām teaches.
- Abū Sufyān seized the Muslim property in Makkah, sold it in Syria to raise funds to attack Islā He was passing Madīnah returning to Makkah and had to be stopped.
- At this stage the Anṣār were only bound by Oath of ʿAqabah, i.e. protect Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ in Madīnah, there was no duty on them to confront Abū Sufyān, but their numbers were needed.
- Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ out of shyness asked the Muhājirūn thrice if they would set out. Saʿd bin Muʿāẓ (may Allāh be pleased with him) realised that Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ was referring to his people. “Perhaps you think, O Messenger of Allāh, that the Anṣār have only undertaken to help you on their own territory. I wish to tell you on behalf of the Anṣār that you may lead us where you like, align us with whom you like, or break relations with whomsoever you see fit. You may take from our wealth what you want and leave for us what you want, but what you take would be more beloved than what you leave us. We shall follow whatever you command. By Allāh, if you go to Bark Ghimdān [symbol for far place] we shall follow you. By Allāh, should you jump into the sea, we would jump with you.”
- The Muhājir “troops” were the same people who sat behind each other to cover their nakedness, who fainted in Ṣalāh due to lack of food. They were now called to fight and none hesitated.
- ʿUmayr bin Abī Waqqās, young boy, hid so that Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ would not send him back. He was martyred.
- Abū Sufyān received intelligence and changed course whilst the Quraysh sent a fully equipped army of 1000 to meet the 313 Muslims.
- Reaching Badr Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ showed where specific enemies would be killed. It happened exactly.
- Night before Battle of Badr, Allāh’s Messenger صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ spent weeping, “O Allāh, if this little group is destroyed then never again will You be worshipped.” – Spiritual combined with material the next day of taking up arms. Middle path is Sunnah.
- 17th Ramaḍān, first year that fast had been ordained. Some continued fasting some took leeway. Neither party reprimanded the other.
- Triple duel before the battle, Muslims win.
- Angels descend. The two boys of Afrāʾ and ʿAbdullāh bin Masʾūd (may Allāh be pleased with them) kill Abū Jahl. 70 Quraysh killed and 70 captured. 6 Muhājirūn and 8 Anṣār martyred.
- Muslims give their food to the prisoners and remain hungry.
و صلى الله على راكب البراق كامل الأخلاق